mecarzole (Total 8500 Papers Found)

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) causes huge annual losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Multiresistance against antibiotics of APEC strains is increasingly seen in broilers, although much is still unknown about strains from laying hens where use of antibiotics is limited. Disinfection can reduce the infection burden. However, little is known about the presence of resistance against these products. Ninety-seven APEC strains were isolated from Belgian laying hens. The resistance to d ...
The MICs of three new antimicrobial agents of different classes, U-70138F, roxithromycin (RU 965), and ofloxacin (ORF 18489), versus Chlamydia trachomatis in McCoy cell cultures were 0.25, 0.8, and 1.0 microgram/ml, respectively. For each test drug, the MIC and MBC were identical or were within 1 dilution of one another. These drugs possessed sufficient activity in cell culture to suggest possible clinical effectiveness. ...
The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is known to disrupt microtubular structures in the testis and to cause testicular toxicity in rats. To investigate the mechanism underlying the toxicity of CBZ, tubulin and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) were isolated from rat testis and brain using two techniques. The effects of CBZ on MT assembly were compared with the known microtubule (MT) disruptors, colchicine and nocodazole. CBZ (100 microM) had no effect on the assembly of MTs from MAP-containing t ...
Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) test is the one most frequently used to quantitate bactericidal potency. The MBC values can then be compared with concentrations attainable in blood and tissues to achieve a basis for considerations as to whether the bactericidal effect can be anticipated in the clinical situation. Also the rate of killing can be assessed thus giving a dynamic picture of drug action. It also helps to confirm the results of synergism obtained by checkerboard studies and he ...
The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Amburana cearensis was chemically characterized and tested for antibacterial activity.The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified were 4-methoxy-3-methylphenol (76.7%), triciclene (3.9%), α -pinene (1.0%), β -pinene (2.2%), and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3.1%). Preliminary antibacterial tests were carried out against species of distinct morphophysiological characteristics: Escherichia coli, Salmonell ...
CONTEXT Qi-Wei-Xiao-Yan-Tang (XYT), composed of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Radix Astragali, Radix Wikstroemiae Indicae, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi, Poria and Radix Glycyrrhizae, has been widely used as an anti-inflammatory drug. OBJECTIVE The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial effects and serum pharmacochemistry of XYT. METHODS The dimethylbenzene-induced inflammation test, the acetic acid-induced vascular permeability test and the carrageenan-induced paw edema test wer ...
Amounts of the fungicides thiabendazole, carbendazim, imazalil or tolclofos-methyl deposited onto potato tubers and uniformity of deposits were compared in 1979–85 using different sprayers. Hydraulic nozzles (Delavan) placed at the end of a store-loading elevator gave large differences in deposits between tubers. Uniformity was improved when tubers were sprayed and passed between a pair of sponge rubber rollers (Gumotox). Deposits of fungicide and their uniformity were also increased by siting ...
We present a Model Based Coding (MBC) scheme which employs 3D scene information resulting in more efficient image coding. We propose a balancing between texture and difference, such that MBC is a dynamic enhancement to current standard image encoders: if no usable model data can be produced, all information remains in the difference, corresponding to standard encoding schemes. The higher the model quality, the more information can be transmitted. The result is an encoding scheme which offers at ...
BACKGROUND No published studies have directly examined the effect of soy protein with isoflavones on bone or bone turnover in perimenopausal women. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to determine the effects of 24 wk of consumption of soy protein isolate with isoflavones (80.4 mg/d) in attenuating bone loss during the menopausal transition. DESIGN Perimenopausal subjects were randomly assigned, double blind, to treatment: isoflavone-rich soy (SPI+; n = 24), isoflavone-poor soy (SPI-; n = 24), or wh ...
Posttransplant infusion of specific donor bone marrow cells into ATG-treated recipients promotes long survival of allografts in the absence of immunosuppressive drug therapy. DBMC infusion also inhibits antidonor CTL activation in allograft recipients, a trend analogous to the veto phenomenon. The present studies investigated a hypothesis that veto activity in DBMC is involved in the induction of donor-specific unresponsiveness in rhesus monkey kidney transplant recipients given ATG and DBM. Nor ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral estrogen replacement therapy with conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), alone or in combination with continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), on lumbar spine bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) and on serum chemistries in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys when therapy is initiated following a 2 year hypoestrogenic period. Study design was done in the form of a randomized, placebo-controlled, nonhuman primate paraclinical t ...
We performed serial measurements of total body bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD), and of regional BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-six patients (15 females and 11 males) were studied at the time of transplantation, and 3 and 6 months post-transplant. At baseline, the total body BMC and regional BMD values of the patients did not differ significantly from age- and sex-matched controls. Total body BMC had fallen progres ...
OBJECTIVES Adiponectin has been implicated in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in humans. Whether adiponectin is related to bone mineralization remains unclear in adults as well as in adolescents. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between plasma adiponectin, leptin concentrations and bone density, including total-body bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) in adolescence. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS We studied 105 nondia ...
Pd(II)-catalyzed intramolecular aminocarbonylation of olefins bearing many types of nitrogen nucleophiles has been examined under two typical conditions: acidic conditions [conditions A, typically PdCl(2) (0.1 equiv) and CuCl(2) (3.0 equiv) under 1 atm of CO at room temperature in methanol] and buffered conditions [conditions B, typically PdCl(2) (0.1 equiv) and CuCl(2) (2.3 equiv) under 1 atm of CO at 30 degrees C in trimethyl orthoacetate]. Among nitrogen nucleophiles, endo-carbamates 7 displa ...
Purpose: Targeting HER2 with multiple HER2-directed therapies represents a promising area of treatment for HER2-positive cancers. We investigated combining the HER2-directed antibody–drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) with the HER2 dimerization inhibitor pertuzumab (Perjeta). Experimental Design: Drug combination studies with T-DM1 and pertuzumab were performed on cultured tumor cells and in mouse xenograft models of HER2-amplified cancer. In patients with HER2positive locally advanc ...
References 1 Chirumbolo S. Bias and adverse effects of homeopathy: is scientific criticism in homeopathy a “mission impossible”? Int J Clin Pract 2013; 67: 923–6. 2 Magnani P, Conforti A, Zanolin E, Marzotto M, Bellavite P. Dose-effect study of Gelsemium sempervirens in high dilutions on anxiety-related responses in mice. Psychopharmacology 2010; 210: 533–45. 3 Bellavite P, Magnani P, Zanolin E, Conforti A. Homeopathic doses of Gelsemium sempervirens improve the behavior of mice in respo ...
Based on a series of in vitro data, including the additive and/or synergistic antiproliferative effect of interferon and tamoxifen on breast cancer cell lines, and on clinical reports, we designed a pilot phase II study to test the activity and toxicity of simultaneous administration of beta-interferon (beta-IFN), retinoids (R) and tamoxifen (TAM) as a salvage therapy in a group of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Herein we describe the outcome of this cohort of patients after a med ...
Technological application of essential oils, as natural antimicrobial agents, to reduce the effect of pathogenic microorganisms, requires new methods of detection. The present work evaluated the parameters of antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on two pathogenic strains Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The MBC and MIC values were of 2.5, 25 μl ml -1 , and values of 1.25 and 5 μl ml -1 for the two strains respectively. In this study, an a ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Androgen Receptor (AR) Expression in Invasive Male Breast Carcinoma (MBC): An International Multi-Institutional Review of 168 Cases Emphasizing the Potential Use of AR as a Therapeutic Target." by Simona Stolnicu et al. ...
The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is an effective alternative to traditional experimental toxicity testing, which is undoubtedly important for modern environmental risk assessment and property prediction. Based on this background, the toxicological effects of ionic liquids (ILs) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) were studied via the QSAR method. A large diverse group of 141 and 85 ILs that have a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal c ...
In this study, antimicrobial activity and morphostructural damages due to lemon grass oil (LGO) and its vapour (LGOV) against Escherichia coli strains were investigated. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of LGO were determined by broth-dilution method to be 0.288 mg/mL and 0.567 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the zone of inhibition (45 mm) due to the vapour phase antimicrobial efficacy evaluated using disc volatilization assay was compar ...
Global warming is projected to continue, leading to intense fluctuations in precipitation and heat waves and thereby affecting the productivity and the relevant biological processes of grassland ecosystems. Here, we determined the functional responses to warming and altered precipitation in both typical and desert steppes. The results showed that watering markedly increased the aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) in a typical steppe during a drier year and in a desert steppe over two yea ...
The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin (Bay o 9867), a new carboxyquinoline antimicrobial agent, was compared with those of norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, and several other oral and parenteral antimicrobial agents. Ciprofloxacin was substantially more active than nalidixic acid or cinoxacin against all gram-negative bacteria tested. Virtually all strains of Enterobacteriaceae were inhibited by the new drug at concentrations of less than or equal to 0.125 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was more activ ...
Surgihoney is a novel engineered organic honey product for wound care. Its antimicrobial activity can be controlled and adjusted by the engineering process, allowing preparation of three different potencies, labelled Surgihoney 1-3. Susceptibility testing of a range of wound and ulcer bacterial isolates to Surgihoney by the disc diffusion method, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) determination, and time-kill measurements by time suspension tests ...
OBJECTIVES Chlorhexidine is used as a disinfectant to prevent surgical infections. Recently, studies have indicated that chlorhexidine usage has selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains that are tolerant to chlorhexidine and that this may be related to the presence of the qacA/B-encoded efflux pumps. Here, we evaluated if high-level exposure to chlorhexidine selects for tolerant colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis and we addressed the consequences of long-term exposure to c ...
The antibacterial effect of AgNPs was investigated by determining MIC/MBC and growth kinetics assay. The lowest MIC/MBC was found to be in the range of 11.25-22.5 µg ml(-1) . The growth kinetics curve shows that 25 µg ml(-1) AgNPs strongly inhibits the bacterial growth. Confocal laser scanning electron microscopy (CLSM) shows that as the concentration of NPs increases, reduction in the number of cells was observed and at 50 µg ml(-1) of NPs, 100% death was noticed. Scanning electr ...
Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is essential for fracture healing. Systemic administration of EP4 ligands such as PGE(2) and other synthetic EP4 agonists appears to transduce anabolic signals by binding to receptor EP4. Therefore, the present study was designed to test whether administration of EP4 agonist accelerates the healing of drill-hole injury in the femoral diaphysis. After surgery, a total of 128 Wistar rats, at the age of 12 weeks, were assigned to basal control (n = 8), and three groups w ...
The role of histidyl, tyrosyl, alpha-or epsilon-amino residues of rat liver nuclear receptors for the specific binding of T3 was studied by chemically modifying the receptor molecule. The kinetics of the formation of N-carbethoxyhistidyl derivative from histidyl groups of nuclear receptors by diethylpyrocarbonate was examined. The modified nuclear receptor fraction was separated from diethylpyrocarbonate by gel filtration and the T3 binding parameters (Ka and MBC) at pH 8.0 were tested by Scatch ...
The importance of adequate calcium intakes for healthy growth and bone development has long been recognised. Recent evidence suggests that calcium supplementation may have sex-specific effects on bone growth in childhood. The aim was to describe the long-term effects of calcium supplementation in pregnant Gambian women with a low calcium intake (ISCRTN96502494) on offspring height, weight, bone and body composition in childhood, and whether the effects differ by sex. Children of mothers who part ...
OBJECTIVES This study compared the activity of telavancin, a novel multivalent lipoglycopeptide with rapid bactericidal activity, with those of five standard antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) against isolates of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). METHODS Microdilution tests performed according to CLSI guidelines using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were used to determine the MIC values of telavancin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, vancomycin, trimethoprim/s ...
BACKGROUND The prognosis of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is extremely heterogeneous. Although patients with MBC will uniformly die to their disease, survival may range from a few months to several years. This underscores the importance of defining prognostic factors to develop risk-adopted treatment strategies. Our aim has been to use simple measures to judge a patient's prognosis when metastatic disease is diagnosed. PATIENTS AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed 2269 patients from four c ...
One hundred and fifty citrus samples from an agricultural co-operative of the Valencian Community (Spain) were analysed for pre- and post-harvest pesticide residues using high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. Among the residues from post-harvest treatments, imazalil was detected in 112 (74.7%) samples at a mean level of 1.2 mg/kg, thiabendazole in 21 (14.0%) samples at a mean level of 0.47 mg/kg and carbendazim in 5 (3.3%) samples at a mean level of 1.05 mg/kg. Among the ...
A new efficient synthesis of (2S,3R)-3-hydroxy-3-methylproline (3) is reported. During the course of a recent study on the Lewis acid promoted intramolecular opening of an epoxide by a carbamate NH, a highly concerted rearrangement was unexpectedly observed. Further investigations of substrate generality show that delta-carbamate-alpha,beta-epoxide esters commonly underwent similar rearrangements with the aid of Lewis acids. Retrosynthetic analysis of such a C(2)-N disconnection can lead to an e ...
Without the vitamin D receptor (VDR), adult mammals develop reduced intestinal calcium absorption, rickets, and osteomalacia. Intestinal calcium absorption normally increases during pregnancy so that the mother can supply sufficient calcium to her fetuses. The maternal skeleton is rapidly resorbed during lactation to provide calcium needed for milk; that lost bone mineral content (BMC) is completely restored after weaning. We studied Vdr null mice to determine whether these adaptations during pr ...
Sepsis is the dysregulated response of the host to systemic, mostly bacterial infection, and is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening opportunistic infections. During polymicrobial sepsis, dendritic cells (DCs) secrete enhanced levels of interleukin (IL) 10 due to an altered differentiation in the bone marrow and contribute to the development of immunosuppression. We investigated the origin of the altered DC differentiation using murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), ...
This 11-year prospective longitudinal study examined how a pre-pubertal pediatric bone mass scan predicts peak bone mass. We measured bone mineral content (BMC; g), bone mineral density (BMD; g/cm2), and bone area (cm2) in femoral neck, total body and lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a population-based cohort including 65 boys and 56 girls. At baseline all participants were pre-pubertal with a mean age of 8 years (range 6–9), they were re-measured at a mean 11 years (range ...
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of ethanol and hexane extracts of Salvadora persica against common oral pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS Well diffusion, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), and Broth microdilution tests were used to determine the optimum antimicrobial concentrations of S. persica extracts against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), and Streptococcus sal ...
Beagle dogs 3-7 years old were ovariectomized (n = 9) or sham operated (n = 6) and followed for 48 weeks with measurements of body weight, tibial shaft bone mineral content (BMC), and serum biochemistry. Following killing, measurements were made of bone strength and histomorphometry. Ovariectomy (OX) significantly reduced serum estrone and estradiol concentrations and their variability from month to month. There was a transient decrease in cortical BMC of the OX dogs during the first 12 postoper ...
A single photon absorption imaging technique has been developed to assess the bone mass of the hand, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or bronchial asthma. A modified rectilinear scanner images the hand by transmission scanning in a water bath with a 7.4 GBq 125I source. A microcomputer is used to calculate the bone mineral distribution, and the total bone mineral content (BMC) of the hand is determined from that distribution. The precision (coefficient of variation) of the measur ...
INTRODUCTION Osteoporosis and osteopenia are major contributors to the high incidence of fractures in older women. Habitual loading plays a crucial role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone. It may be possible to develop clinical interventions based on targeted modes of physical loading that can improve bone health and reduce fractures in women. If so, an important first step is determining the degree to which common fracture sites, such as the distal radius are responsive to habitual load ...
The spectrum of antibiotic susceptibility of Borrelia burgdorferi has been only partially defined. In the present study the effectiveness of 12 antimicrobials, belonging to six different antibiotic classes have been tested against Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. (N=3), Borrelia garinii (N=3), Borrelia afzelii (N=3), Borrelia valaisiana (N=1), and Borrelia bissettii (N=1) isolates. These isolates were analysed by a new standardised colorimetric minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) method based upon c ...
Background: Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus populations has led to an increase in malaria transmission in southern Africa. Resistance has been attributed to elevated activities of cytochrome P450s but the molecular basis underlying this metabolic resistance is unknown. Microsatellite and SNP markers were used to construct a linkage map and to detect a quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with pyrethroid resistance in the FUMOZ-R strain of An. funestus from Mozambique. Results: B ...
Background: We applied stochastic search variable selection (SSVS), a Bayesian model selection method, to the simulated data of Genetic Analysis Workshop 13. We used SSVS with the revisited Haseman-Elston method to find the markers linked to the loci determining change in cholesterol over time. To study gene-gene interaction (epistasis) and gene-environment interaction, we adopted prior structures, which incorporate the relationship among the predictors. This allows SSVS to search in the model s ...
AIM The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of root-end filling materials ProRoot MTA, MTA Angelus and IRM. MATERIALS AND METHODS Macrodilution broth method was used. Microorganisms used were: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Streptococcus mutans. Serial two-fold dilutions of root-end filling samples were prepared in macrodilution tubes with concentrations ranging from 1/2 to 1/512. The samples dilutions were ...
BACKGROUND Flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) var. pleniflora, known as "Golnar" in Iranian traditional medicine have been used for the prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. In this study, antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Golnar and its fractions were scientifically evaluated against bacteria causing foodborne diseases including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysantriae, and Salmonella typhi. The total ph ...
Background: Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains a cocktail of antihemostatic agents and immunomodulators that help blood feeding. Mosquitoes additionally feed on sugar meals and have specialized regions of their glands containing glycosidases and antimicrobials that might help control bacterial growth in the ingested meals. To expand our knowledge on the salivary cocktail of Ædes ægypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fevers, we analyzed a set of 4,232 expressed sequence tags from cDNA ...
Despite the activity of standard chemotherapies in advanced breast cancer, disease progression remains inevitable. Most patients exposed to anthracyclines and taxanes develop resistance and a significant subset shows primary resistance. The increasing use of these agents as adjuvant therapy may result in more anthracycline- and taxane-resistant patients in the metastatic setting; few treatment options are available for patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) resistant to multiple chemothera ...
A grid-connected photovoltaic inverter based on interleaved flyback converter and a novel control strategy with BCM and soft switching are proposed in this paper. Power rating of the inverter can be dramatically increased due to the fact that the peak rated power of each of N interleaved flyback converter is 2/N of the total rated power. In order to increase the efficiency of the converter by eliminating the impact of leak inductance of the flyback transformer, inherited from the low voltage inp ...
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a weekly schedule of epirubicin in combination with docetaxel in the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 43 women with MBC not previously treated with chemotherapy for metastatic disease received weekly epirubicin 25 mg m−2 and docetaxel 25 mg m−2 for a maximum of five cycles (total cumulative epirubicin dose of ⩽900 mg m−2). Dose reduction was not permitted. Obje ...